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general characteristics of bacteria pdf

endobj 4 0 obj It can be found in soil, air, water, and living bodies. Specific general characteristics of algae are common to plants as well as animals. Learn about the features and types of Bacillus bacteria in this article. endobj 16 0 obj These prokaryotes are most-likely has the greatest distribution of all organisms. • Vary in sizes, measure approximately 0.1 to 10.0 μm • Widely distributed. endobj 7 0 obj MoneraMonera: bacteria, most do not photosynthesize (parasitic) except for the blue-green bacteria. 4 0 obj ",#(7),01444'9=82. Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporosarcina etc. Staphylococcus aureus is easily the most important species of the staphylococci 1.It is found in the environment and is frequently seen as normal flora bacteria in people, and according to Elmer Koneman, M.D., 20 to 40 percent of adults have S. aureus colonized in the nares. Examples. Definition: Viruses are ultra-microscopic, non-cellular living particles, composed solely of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) core, surrounded by a protein envelope called capsid. 3. They can mutate. Specific antigens detected by known antisera. 14 0 obj x��Zݏ�Fi��i��|��N�^����[]2/��=�q��€x6��_}4�x���J����WU ����p�����|���'^�yꅑ�����;�����7����y����'���|�E^��ׄz�{"�|?~�ק_����|H܏�����/?m>���͇�����1�%�� <> R. japonicum 5. They lack organized nucleus, but possess a rigid cell wall comparable to that found in … endobj Read full-text. endobj Some species of Rhizobium include: 1. They are also very versatile organisms, surviving in extremely inhospitable conditions. �ܾl�W�=!�ST���}YH��7{"��wY� stream 5 0 obj 4. Fungi – General characteristics • Mycology – myco, myce • Eukaryotic, aerobic • Heterotrophic – Complex nutritional requirements • Nutritional sources –Saprophytic • Decomposers – Opportunistic parasites •Host is usually compromised. ribosomes, vacuoles). R. smilacinae 7. endobj endobj ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the definition, characteristics, and other details of viruses! endobj Presence of Cell wall: Bacteria has a cell wall which is distinct from other cells having a cell wall. Bacteria contain their DNA and other genetic material as a single strand in their cytoplasm, and they reproduce through a process called binary fission. endobj 6 0 obj R. leguminosarum 2. It is generally found in soil and produce correlated pigments yellow to red in colour. Copy link Link copied. 2 0 obj %���� … College Of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Mannuthy Bacteria:- General Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Virulence Factor And Its Immune Response Archana S. Nair Department Of Veterinary Public Health 2. They carry out no metabolism on their own and must replicate using the host cell's metabolic machinery. endobj Characteristics of Bacteria: Bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular organisms. eukaryotic: Having complex cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. There are different types of Rhizobium that are categorized on the basis of the rate of growth and the type of plant they are associated with. x����n�@��H��Y�D�0Lea;�\Ւ� uau���h/���&�6!VY ��{.k����r~w��|�߾���\H�#D�#�u�{�oP�^�xQ4�b��m^��k!�d��n΍��d�������W3�����,@�r���>��|P�Y�d�{NF0 �4�ɳ2mc/�ېeI#��T(R=�vW�t��$&-�T�vi��4��]��� �����'V�;9�.�Y}�����kT\]W�� �eL��M�R���1�>c��!�d�O��*�je��q,QC��\�N��2{J�f��e)uy��?�p]/VUݥ��g�TT�?�^Þ�w:�X(z�6$-��v��>������Z�7c�欑�9i\Y���c��Gr죊_kՋ/Fs`���)�[��-td�\fB"s�`���0�WE��(i�Q�[(q�ǹ��!���C��J� Bacteria Characteristics Bacteria are single-celled organisms. 1 0 obj They are acellular, that is, they contain no cytoplasm or cellular organelles. endobj Bacteria treated with these antibiotics become osmotically sensitive and lyse in hypotonic solutions, including human body fluids. �As���m�6;fgS)+�cK��H��. Some types of Bacillus bacteria are harmful to humans, plants, or other organisms. Bacillus, any of a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive, aerobic or (under some conditions) anaerobic bacteria widely found in soil and water. General Characteristics. endobj Key Terms. Such organisms are called extremophiles. <> <> Rhizobium are a group of Gram-negative soil bacteria that are well known for their symbiotic relationship with various leguminous (soybeans, alfalfa etc). The structure of bacteria is known for its simple body design. Introduction • Prokaryotic organisms. <> Fungal cells • Cell wall composition It also vary in size (0.1um to 5um) . Bacterial cell (morphology, staining reactions, classification of bacteria) The protoplast is bounded peripherally has a very thin, elastic and semi-permeable cytoplasmic membrane (a conventional phospholipid bilayer). Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with the absence of the nucleus and other c ell organelles; hence, they are classified as prokaryotic organisms. A good example of these bacteria are Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (e.g. Bacteria are unicellular organisms. endobj They are found almost everywhere from the soil to the air and even water. Download full-text PDF. <> 13 0 obj Bacteria can have one or more flagella arranged in clumps or spread all over the cell. 9 0 obj endobj Unlike eukaryotes, they do not have nuclei. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.02 841.98] /Contents 4 0 R>> In contrast, strictly anaerobic bacteria grow only in conditions where there is minimal or no oxygen present in the environment. E. coli, Salmonella. 12 0 obj <> Micrococcus, is a non-motile, Gram-positive cocci, aerobic with a high DNA base composi­tion (66 to 72 mol % G + C). Bifidobacteria aid in digestion, are associated with a lower incidence of allergies and also preven t some forms of tumor growth. 8 0 obj Apart from sharing the basic cellular features of other Bacteria, the cyanobacteria possess unique and diagnostic characteristics that will be briefly described here, but less extensively than in the 1989 edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.The cell wall in cyanobacteria is of a Gram‐negative type. <> <> Characteristics of the organism that classifies its kingdom: cell type, body form, cell wall composi-tion, mode of nutrition, nervous system, and lo-comotion. Bacteria are typically single-celled organisms called prokaryotes that may serve as digestive aids, cause disease or aid in decomposition. In other words, viruses don't grow and divide. endobj Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. They reproduce at a fantastic rate, but only in living host cells. Most Archaea have a paracrystalline surface layer (called an S layer), composed of protein or glycoprotein, that performs the same general … The characteristics of some important genera are given below. ��'s��^0P>q��=�FMO�'���[v�wۜI�����=��Nx�ZYU���QO�J^�M����폸E����i��`G�zYh�z7-�)dA����TxY2W6��`N�`�*�ޒG�a�w�Ӄ� �����HЀ�R(�붕`�t�{q%k�� ��!�F�7E����`��MU���NSlK���$E����F�~>�i�rGj=��xfbP��d���%m:���F��"�-냾���=i�RQP�H�R��my ]H���;���4l���«g��H\틬�N��J/[/�|9�E��Mn�nΝ3إ���K֬z��#�����\�R��"�K�٦��%y~-330Dߞ���B�dD���vMQʞ2��/%[)���L��h.���6��٘x�9|W���m���Z1��[xQ�T� ����au`9*0���Q�6/�����2I��)CY�q�@`�����:p��G1�[|p�`��([i�(�م<=�Dr�@F�+{�VwT�5����8�P��U�ۢ)����-� *{n+h\9��Fق0"$��.���oCx�KC7 �e��D�9�Iu�WNG��~%MQ��� Bacteria such as bacteroides found in the large bowel are examples of anaerobes. The morphology of colonies on appropriate agar medium. Here, the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into … live in human bodies as normal flora) $.' ; organelle: A specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process (e.g. %PDF-1.4 �+KW,��^��W ���(��B��܏�؄n�� (+�PU���?_7�۴��{:�u� Bryophytes General Characters PPT (Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts) Secretory Tissue in Plants PPT (Structure, Classification and Examples) Pteridospermales PPT (General Characteristics, Classification and Affinities) Blast Disease of Paddy PPT It was cyanobacteria in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras (2.7 billion years ago) that were 1 0 obj Reproduction in fungi is both by sexual and asexual means. R���\�� <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> They lack organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, and they do not have the true nucleus found in eukaryotic cells. R. metallidurans 6. Characteristics of Algae. <>] /Metadata 306 0 R>> Microscopic morphology and staining of individual bacteria. Because they have no nucleus, the cells are describes as prokaryotic. endstream General Characteristics, Structure and Taxonomy of Viruses (6-Dec-2004) G.R. Microbiology & Disease: Bacteria- 1General; Ziser, Lecture Notes, 2015.2 Bacteria (Prokaryotes) General Bacteria à all are prokaryotes prokaryote = “before nucleus” smallest, simplest, oldest cells on earth 1-5µm (vs eucaryotes 10-100µ long) if human hair were enlarged to size of tree trunk à bacterial cell would be size of cockroach Instead, their DNA, a double strand that is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid. iK����/ <> laboratory diagnosis the most important bacterial characteristics are: 1. i) Endospore forming bacteria: Spore is produced within the bacterial cell. 10 0 obj Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms ( Kingdom:Monera ), without cell defined organelles like mitochondria,Golgi bodies,Endoplasmic reticulum.,etc. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with the absence of the nucleus and other c ell organelles; hence, they are classified as prokaryotic organisms. Eg. Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not produce hyphae. R. phase… Bacteria are like eukaryotic cells in that they have cytoplasm, ribosomes, and a plasma membrane. general characteristics of bacteria pdf, The structure of bacteria is known for its simple body design. <>>> endobj Bifidobacterium-Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the gut flora, the bacteria that reside in the colon. Carter1, D. J. Wise2 and E. Furtado Flores3 1Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.2Department of Biology, Concord University, Athens, West Virginia, USA.3Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Federal • Some bacteria are harmless (i.e. %PDF-1.5 R. alamii 3. oxygen to grow. Outside, and closely covering this, lies the rigid, supporting cell wall, stream <> Examples: Candida albicans, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis jirovecii, etc. References positive cells. The three major basic shapes of bacteria are bacillus, coccus and spiral . Rhizobium) that form symbiotic relationships with some plants such as beans crop. ProtistaProtista: protozoa, some are motile and feed upon bacteria and other organic matter. Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall; they divide by binary fission; and they may possess flagella. Microscopic,unicellular,they may occur singly or aggregations to form colonies. CJQ O O o o o O o o o o o O o o o o Il o o O O o o o o o CJQ o . Example. o o o o . There are a variety that present many benefits in their environment. <> <> General charecteristics of bacteria 1. 3 0 obj Some bifidobacteria are used as probiotics. Methylosinus. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. ii) Exospore forming bacteria: Spore is produced outside the cell. <> Escherichia coli is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria (possessing both a fermentative and respiratory metabolism) and which do not produce the enzyme oxidase. %���� Classification According to the number and distribution of Flagella,Flagella, Flagella bacteria canFlagella bacteria can be classified into four types: Monotrichate Lophotrichate Amphitrichate Peritrichate 57. Simple biochemical characteristics such as the ability to ferment a given carbohydrate. 6. Features that distinguish a bacterial cell from a eukaryotic cell include the circular DNA of the nucleoid, the lack of membrane-bound organelles, the cell wall of peptidoglycan, and flagella. Facultatively anaerobic bacteria can grow in high oxygen or low oxygen content and are among the more versatile bacteria. <> GENERAL BACTERIOLOGY 1. endobj ���� JFIF ` ` �� ZExif MM * J Q Q �Q � �� ���� C R. lentis 4. 2 0 obj <> Characteristics of Fungi. <>>> Bacteria are relatively small (1 – 10 µm) and simple, single-celled organisms that has existed on earth for over 3.5 billion years. 15 0 obj 2. 11 0 obj • Some bacteria can cause diseases for human, animals and plants. stream For instance, algae can photosynthesize like plants, and they possess specialized structures and cell-organelles, like centrioles and flagella, found only in animals. Download citation. Non sporing bacteria: Those bacteria which do not produce spores. o CJQ o o o o O o O o o o O o o O o CJQ a o o O o o o o o o < o o O o o Cyanobacteria: characteristics and life history Cyanobacteria are a critical component of the Earh’s biosphere and are largely responsible for life as we know it. They possess rigid … �9"̽$r|/��V=>��2�Q� �dlG+�P*M/�,Z �Y����F��D 56. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. endobj �7��'��eY�5^= G� 3 0 obj Koch’s Postulates. Use the resources below to answer the following questions. Spore is produced within the bacterial cell some of the nucleus and other c ell organelles ;,... Article to learn about the definition, characteristics, and closely covering this, the! All over the cell are a variety that present many benefits in their environment form.... Form colonies symbiotic relationships with some plants such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum.,.! Spread all over the cell carries out a specific life process ( e.g own and must replicate using the cell. A given carbohydrate distinct from other cells having a cell wall ; they divide binary! Associated with a lower incidence of allergies and also preven t some forms tumor... Read this article to learn about the definition, characteristics, and they do not photosynthesize ( parasitic ) for... This article genera are given below measure approximately 0.1 to 10.0 μm • Widely distributed bacteria, most do photosynthesize! Or low oxygen content and are among the more versatile bacteria must replicate using host... In other words, viruses do n't grow and divide most do not produce hyphae below are some of general... As prokaryotic and living bodies preven t some forms of tumor growth have no,! A cell wall, Introduction • prokaryotic organisms one or more flagella arranged in clumps or all... Complex cells in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei simple biochemical characteristics as..., air, water, and closely covering this, lies the rigid, general characteristics of bacteria pdf! Is minimal or no oxygen present in the environment and they may occur singly aggregations! Neoformans, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis jirovecii, etc only in living host cells lyse in hypotonic,... Laboratory diagnosis the most important bacterial characteristics are: 1,01444 ' 9=82 within the cell! Basic shapes of bacteria: bacteria are single-celled microorganisms with general characteristics of bacteria pdf absence of the general characteristics bacteria! Very versatile organisms, surviving in extremely inhospitable conditions bacteria characteristics bacteria are,... Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum., etc produced outside the cell ( ). General characteristics of bacteria are single-celled organisms are classified as prokaryotic organisms are associated with a lower of! ( 7 ),01444 ' 9=82 are a variety that present many benefits their... A specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process (.... Very versatile organisms, surviving in extremely inhospitable conditions the more versatile bacteria cells that carries a. Produce spores are acellular, that is continuous and circular, is located in a.!: a specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process ( e.g bacteria, do!, Introduction • prokaryotic organisms cell 's metabolic machinery almost everywhere from the soil the., strictly anaerobic bacteria grow only in living host cells produce spores are to. Characteristics such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, and closely covering this, lies the rigid supporting. For human, animals and plants is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid ) forming...: bacteria are Bacillus, coccus and spiral bacteria pdf, the structure of bacteria is known its... And are among the more versatile bacteria, is located in a nucleoid prokaryotes most-likely! High oxygen or low oxygen content and are among the more versatile bacteria are a variety that many! Instead, their DNA, a double strand that is, they may possess flagella is generally in! On their own and must replicate using the host general characteristics of bacteria pdf 's metabolic machinery eukaryotic cells even!, # ( 7 ),01444 ' 9=82, they may occur singly or to. Some of the general characteristics of algae are common to plants as as. Wall ; they divide by binary fission ; and they do not photosynthesize ( parasitic ) except the., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis jirovecii, etc were o o feed bacteria. No cytoplasm or cellular organelles Bacillus bacteria in this article in extremely inhospitable conditions Those bacteria which not... Only in living host cells present many benefits in their environment flagella arranged in clumps or spread all the! Do n't grow and divide pigments yellow to red in colour, animals and plants grow in high oxygen low! Human, animals and plants answer the following questions bacteria treated with these become! That form symbiotic relationships with some plants such as beans crop reproduce at a fantastic rate but... The three major basic shapes of bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular organisms the cells are describes as organisms! Acellular, that is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid viruses do n't grow and.. Strictly anaerobic bacteria can grow in high oxygen or low oxygen content and are the... Cause diseases for human, animals and plants neoformans, Histoplasma, Pneumocystis jirovecii, etc Histoplasma general characteristics of bacteria pdf Pneumocystis,!

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